Glossary of Terms
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Archaeological Resource (ressource
archéologique): ll tangible evidence of human activity that is of
historical, cultural or scientific interest. Examples include
features, structures, archaeological objects or remains at or from
an archaeological site, or an object recorded as an isolated
Archaeological Site (site archéologique):A
place or area where tangible evidence of human activity of
historical, cultural or scientific interest is or was located on,
above or below the ground, whether submerged or not. The
identification, recovery and interpretation of this evidence can be
carried out using archaeological research methods.
Archaeological Site/Remains (vestiges/site
archéologiques): refers to physical evidence of past human activity
of historical, cultural or scientific interest located below, on or
above the ground or underwater.
Architrave (chambranle): mouldings
around openings such as doors, windows and chimneys and certain
other locations to conceal joints or for decorative purposes.
Area of Historic Place (description des
limites): The extent of the historic place, as defined by the
formal recognition, in square metres.
Ashlar (pierre de parement): stone
that has been cut square and dressed.
Atrium (atrium): An interior courtyard that is
open to the weather; or a significant interior space, often
Attic (combles): The top floor of a building,
often reduced in height and unfinished.
Awning (auvent): A moveable, fabric-covered,
sloped surface that projects from a wall - usually over a door,
window or storefront - to provide shelter from the weather. See
also canopy and marquee.
Bakelite (bakélite): An insulating or facing
material manufactured from synthetic resins and resembling opaque
Balustrade (balustrade): A railing composed of
posts (balusters) and a handrail. (This definition is better)
Balustrade (balustrade): A low rail supported by short posts. (A
guide to Can. Architectural Styles)
Bargeboard (bordure de pignon): Boards or other
decorative woodwork fixed to the edges or projecting rafters of a
gabled roof, sometimes called gingerbread.
Batten (tasseau): A narrow vertical strip of
wood, placed over joints of wider boards to protect the joints from
the weather; the combination is called board-and-batten
construction. See also siding.
Bay (baie): The vertical divisions in a façade
created by the rhythm of the doors and windows.
Beam (poutre): A principal horizontal
structural member; also see joist.
Bellcast roof (toit en larmier): A roof that
flares out at the eaves.
Belvedere (belvédère): Raised turret or
Berm (talus): An embankment or ridge of earth,
usually created to serve as a protective barrier.
Blind arcade (arcade aveugle): A row of arches
applied to a wall as a decorative element.
Board and batten (planche et tasseau): Wooden
sheathing of wide vertical boards placed side by side with narrow
strips of wood (called battens) covering the joints.
Bollard (bollard): A thick post used for
securing ropes or to limit access to an area.
Bracket (console): A small projecting piece of
stone or wood that supports a horizontal member such as the
Brise-soleil (brise-soleil): A screen, usually
louvered, placed on the outside of a building to shield windows
from direct sunlight.
Building (bâtiment): A construction with roof
and walls used to shelter occupants and/ or contents.
Bull's eye window (oeil-de-boeuf): A round
window; also called an oculus.
Bunker (casemate): Part of a fortification
defence system built partly or entirely below ground.
Buttress (contrefort): An exterior masonry
support built into or against a wall to counter the lateral thrusts
of a roof.
Cadastral Reference (numéro de cadastre):
Cross-reference to the land unit corresponding to the historic
Cairn (cairn): A mound of stones serving as a
monument or marker.
Canadian Heritage River (rivière du patrimoine
canadien): A river or section of a river which has been determined
by the Canadian Heritage Rivers Board to have outstanding Canadian
natural heritage, human heritage and/or recreational value.
Canadian Register of Historic Places
(répertoire canadien des lieux patrimoniaux): The pan-Canadian list
of historic places of local, provincial, territorial and national
significance. The Canadian Register of Historic Places is
administered by the Government of Canada, in collaboration with
provincial and territorial governments.
Canadian Register of Historic Places Documentation
Standards (normes de documentation du Répertoire canadien
des lieux patrimoniaux): Required information for each nomination
of a historic place to the Canadian Register of Historic Places.
For more information, please contact the appropriate Federal,
Provincial, or Territorial Registrar or consult the Canadian
Register of Historic Places Documentation Standards Handbook.
Canadian Register of Historic Places Eligibility
Criteria (critères d'admissibilité au Répertoire canadien
des lieux patrimoniaux): A place is eligible for listing on the
Canadian Register of Historic Places if it meets the definition of
"historic place" and if the Canadian Register Documentation
Standards have been met
Canadian Registrar (registraire canadien): The
Canadian Registrar is responsible for managing and maintaining the
Canadian Register of Historic Places.
Canopy (auvent fixe): A fixed horizontal,
sloped or arched surface that projects from a wall - usually over a
door - to provide shelter from the weather. See also awning and
Cantilever (cantilever): A horizontal
projection balanced by the downward pressure of a vertical member
on its pivotal point. (A guide to Can. Architectural Styles)
Capital (chapiteau): The decorative head of a
column, pilaster, pier or other vertical support.
Cartographic Identifiers (identificateurs
cartographiques): Identify the specific location of the historic
place, and allows a historic place to be visually represented on a
map of Canada on the CRHP system and the Historic Places web
Casement window (fenêtre à battants): A window
that is hinged along the vertical edge and opens by swinging either
in or out.
Category of Property (catégorie de propriété):
Classifies the current owner of the historic place according to
type- private, public (federal), public (provincial), public
(territorial), public (local), not-for-profit, first nations
reserve, settlement lands, and aboriginal/ public lands.
Chamfer (chanfrein): A sloping or bevelled
Chancel (choeur): The part of a church to the
liturgical east of the nave or crossing containing the altar; also
known as the sanctuary.
Character-defining elements (éléments
caractéristiques): The materials, forms, location, spatial
configurations, uses and cultural associations or meanings that
contribute to the heritage value of a historic place, and which
must be retained in order to preserve its heritage value.
Cladding (recouvrement): The external,
non-structural material that protects the structural wall or frame
from the weather.
Clapboard (planche à gorge): Siding or cladding
of bevelled boards laid horizontally and overlapping at the top and
bottom, applied to the outside of a woodframed building to make it
weatherproof; the face of each board is oblique to the wall (also
called bevelled siding).
Clocher (clocher): Bell tower or a room near
the top of a tower where the bells are hung
Collections (collection): Those movable
resources that are located within a historic place and contribute
to its significance.
Colonette (colonette): A small decorative
column.(A guide to Can. Architectural Styles)
Colonnade (colonnade): A row of regularly
spaced columns usually supporting an entablature and part of a
Column (colonne): A tall, cylindrical support,
traditionally decorated according to one of the ancient orders (see
Commemoration (commemoration): Ministerial
recognition of the national significance of specific lands or
waters by acquisition or by agreement, erection of a plaque or
monument, or by another means deemed authority for purposes of
protecting and presenting heritage places and resources,
Commemorative Integrity (Intégrité
commémorative): A historic place (national historic site, heritage
railway station, federal heritage building, etc.) may be said to
possess commemorative integrity when the resources that symbolize
or represent its importance are not impaired or under threat, when
the reasons for its significance are effectively communicated to
the public, and when the heritage value of the place is
Commemorative Integrity Statement (énoncé
d'intégrité commemorative): This document demonstrates the reason
of designation of a national historical site by the Minister of
Environment on the recommendation of the Historic Sites and
Monument Board of Canada. It identifies the resources and his
values, the objectives for management of the site and is the
reference document for the planification, management, operation and
development of reports and adoption of corrective measures.
Concrete (béton): A mixture of cement,
aggregate (usually sand and gravel) and water that hardens and
attains great compressive strength. When used structurally it is
usually reinforced with embedded steel rods or mesh to give it
tensile strength as well.
Conservation (conservation): All actions or
processes that are aimed at safeguarding the character-defining
elements of a cultural resource so as to retain its heritage value
and extend its physical life. This may involve "Preservation,"
"Rehabilitation," "Restoration," or a combination of these actions
Console (console): An S-curve bracket.
Consolidant (consolidant): Repair material that
penetrates and strengthens a deteriorated element.
Construction date (date de construction): The
date of construction of the historic place (may be
Consultation (consultation): The term public
consultation refers to the two-way process of providing and seeking
information and advice from the general public, governments,
Aboriginal peoples, interest groups and others on the management of
protected heritage places. Consultation is only one of the many
aspects of the overall public engagement. (Not in French
Contributing Resources (resources
contributives): The major resources within the boundaries of the
historic place that significantly contribute to its heritage value.
These resources are classified as buildings, structures, remains,
and landscapes or landscape features.
De-listing (retrait d'une inscription): A
listed historic place may be de-listed from the Canadian Register
if it no longer meets the eligibility criteria for listing. For
more information, please contact the appropriate Federal,
Provincial, or Territorial Registrar.
Dentil (denticule): a small block,
usually part of a series of such blocks, in the entablature of the
classical orders (see order). (A guide to Can. Architectural
Description of Boundaries (description des
limites): Description of the physical limits of the historic place,
as defined by the formal recognition.
Description of Historic Place (description du
lieu patrimonial): Briefly describes the historic place and
identifies to what the designation or formal recognition
Designation (désignation) : Acte qui survient
quand le Ministère approuve une recommendation des lieux et
monuments historiques du Canada ou du Comité des edifices fédéraux
du patrimoine (CÉFP). (Not in French version)
Doric (dorique): see order.
Dormer (lucarne): A window that projects from a
sloping roof, with a small roof of its own.
Double hung (window) (fenêtre à guillotine): A
window with vertically sliding double sections.
Dressed (taillé): A stone cut square on all
sides and smoothed on the face.
Earthworks (remblai): In military architecture,
a defensive structure constructed of earth.
Eave (débord de toit): The projecting edge of a
Ecosystem (écosystème): The system formed by
the interaction of all the living things of a particular
environment with one another and with their habitat.
Façade (Elevation) (façade principale, façade,
élévation): The face of a building; an architectural drawing of the
vertical projection of the face of a building.
Entablature (entablement): The horizontal
component, usually decorated, that lies directly above a column or
other support; in Classical architecture, the entablature is
composed of an architrave, a frieze and a cornice. (This definition
Fascia (bordure de toit): A finish element
covering the face of eaves and roof projections.
Federal Heritage Building (édifice fédéral du
patrimoine): Any federally owned building that has been designated
by the Minister of Canadian Heritage enviroment under the Federal
Heritage Buildings Policy.
Federal Heritage Buildings Review Office
(bureau d'examen des édifices fédéraux du patrimoine): An
interdepartmental advisory body responsible for identifying which
federal buildings merit designation as federal heritage buildings,
and for monitoring the conservation and continued use of these
Federal, Provincial or Territorial Unique
Identifier (identificateur unique
federal/provincial/territorial): An alpha-numeric reference code
assigned to a historic place by a federal, provincial, or
(Registraire fédéral, provincial ou territorial): The Federal,
Provincial or Territorial Registrar under whose mandate the
historic place falls, and who is responsible for nominating the
historic place to the Canadian Register of Historic Places. For
more information about the Federal, Provincial and Territorial
Registrars, see the Roles and Responsibilities section.
Fenestration (fenêtrage): The arrangement of
windows on a building.
Finial (fleuron): an ornamental projection at
the top of a gable, roof or other high component.
Formal Recognition Authority (autorité de
reconnaissance officielle): The name of the local, provincial,
territorial or federal authority that recognized the historic
Formal Recognition Date (date de reconnaissance
officielle): The date on which the formal recognition of the
historic place was approved or took effect.
Formal Recognition Statute (autorité de
reconnaissance): The legislation, policy or by-law under which the
historic place is formally recognized.
Formal Recognition Type (type de reconnaissance
officielle): The type of formal recognition as defined in the
legislation, policy or by-law that applies to the historic
Formal Recognition (reconnaissance officielle):
The designation or other recognition by or under federal,
provincial or territorial law or a municipal by-law or
Frame (charpente): The structural skeleton of a
Function- Category (current) (fonction -
catégorie (actualle)): The broad category that applies to the
current function of the historic place.
Function - Category (historic) (fonction -
catégorie (historique)): The broad category that applies to the
historic function of the historic place.
Function- Type (current) (fonction - type
(actuel)): The specific current function of the historic place.
Function - Type (historic) (fonction - type
(historique)): The specific historic function of the historic
Gable (pignon): The triangular portion of a
wall beneath the end of a gabled roof.
Gabled roof (toit à pignon): A roof that slopes
on two sides.
Gambrel roof (toit à comble brisé): A ridged
roof with two slopes on each side.
Glacis (glacis): A slope extending down from a
Guidelines (lignes directrices): Statements
that provide practical guidance in applying the Standards for the
conservation of historic places. They are presented here in a
format that provides recommended and non-recommend actions.
Heritage Area (aire du patrimoine): A generic
term used to signify those geographical areas which are included
within the Parks Canada Program. These include National Parks,
National Marine Conservation Areas, National Historic Sites and
Heritage Railway Station (gare ferroviaire
patrimoniale): A railway Station that has been designated as a
''Heritage Railway Station'' by the line departement of Parks
Canada on the recommandation of the Historic Sites and Monuments
Board of Canada and the Heritage Railway Stations Protection
Act. The law is applicable only to the railway stations that
belong to the Canadian railway station.
Heritage Resources (ressource patrimoniale): A
Heritage Area or any natural or cultural features associated with
heritage areas or potential Areas.
Heritage Tourism (tourisme patrimonial): An
immersion in the natural history, human heritage, the arts and
philosophy, and the institutions of a region or country; the
purpose of this activity is to create understanding, awareness and
support for the nation's heritage.
Heritage value (valeur patrimoniale): The
aesthetic, historic, scientific, cultural, social or spiritual
importance or significance for past, present or future generations.
The heritage value of a historic place is embodied in its
character-defining materials, forms, location, spatial
configurations, uses and cultural associations or meanings.
Hinged window (fenêtre à charnière): A sash
which swings in or out and is hinged at the top or bottom.
Hipped roof (toit en croupe): roof with four
Historic Canal (canal historique): An
administrative term referring to those canals operated by Parks
Canada for purposes of navigation as well as for protection,
enjoyment and interpretation of their cultural and natural heritage
values. Many of these operating canals have been designated as
national historic sites under the authority of the Historic Sites
and Monuments Act, and are managed in accordance with the
"administration, preservation and maintenance" clause of that
Historic Museum (musée historique): A museum
established under the authority of section 3(c) of the Historic
Sites and Monuments Act to commemorate a historic place.
Historic Place (lieu patrimonial): A structure,
building, group of buildings, district, landscape, archaeological
site or other place in Canada that has been formally recognized for
its heritage value by an appropriate authority within a
Historic Place Record (enregistrement d'un lieu
patrimonial): The electronic record containing information relating
to a historic place listed on the Canadian Register of Historic
Historic place (lieu patrimonial): A structure,
building, group of buildings, district, landscape, archaeological
site or other place in Canada that has been formally recognized for
its heritage value.
Historic Value (valeur historique): A value
assigned by Parks Canada to a resource, whereby it is recognized as
a cultural resource. All resources have historical value;
only those which are considered to have importance over and above
the historical, have historic value.
Historical (historique): Of, relating to, or of
the nature of, history, as opposed to fiction. "Historical" refers
more broadly to what is concerned with history, whereas the term
"historic" refers to having importance in, or influence on,
Hood moulding (Drip moulding) (larmier): A
moulding that projects above a window or door to throw off
rainwater. (A guide to Can. Architectural Styles)
In kind (à l'identique): With the same form,
material and detailing as the existing element.
In situ (sur place): This term means 'in place'
and as used in this document, it refers to the action of
protecting, maintaining and/or stabilizing the existing materials
of an archaeological site in the location where they were found. It
is the main recommended action associated with minimal
Indigenous Species (espèces indigènes):
Organisms that occur naturally in a particular area instead of
being introduced, directly or indirectly, by human activity.
Inspecting (inspecter): Carrying out a survey
or review of the condition of an historic place and its elements to
determine if they are functioning properly; to identify signs of
weakness, deterioration or hazardous conditions; and to identify
necessary repairs. Inspections should be carried out on a
regular basis as part of a maintenance plan.
Interpretation (interprétation): An educational
activity whose objective is to reveal meanings and relationships
through the use of artifacts, illustrative media and first-hand
experiences rather than by simply communicating factual
Interpretive Construct (éléments
interprétatifs): Construction designed to support or present the
interpretation of an archaeological site and its character-defining
elements, and to help communicate its heritage value. Examples of
interpretive constructs include plaques and panels.
Intervention (intervention): Any action, other
than demolition or destruction, that results in a physical change
to an element of a historic place.
Intumescent paint (peinture intumescente): A
type of paint that when heated swells to form a fire-protective
Inukshuk (inukshuk): An Inuit stone cairn
having the rough outline of a human figure.
Ionic (ionique): see order.
Joist (solive): A secondary horizontal
structural member, usually supported by a beam at each end, and
itself supporting a floor, ceiling, or roof.
Jurisdiction (jurisdiction): The federal,
provincial, or territorial jurisdiction under whose mandate the
historic place falls.
Keystone (clé de voûte): The central stone at
the apex of an arch of vault. (A guide to Can. Architectural
Lancet (lancet): Gothic narrow pointed window,
used mainly in churches.
Landscape(s) or Landscape Feature(s)
(paysage(s) ou élément(s) paysager(s)): A human-made or naturally
occurring element/site that is not a building or structure but can
be identified within a historic place.
Lantern (lanternon): A windowed superstructure
at the top of a roof or dome; a small cupola.
Lintel (linteau): A horizontal beam above a
window or door that takes the weight of the wall above the
List (inscription): If the Canadian Register
Documentation Standards have been met for a historic place
nomination, the Canadian Registrar lists the historic place record
on the Canadian Register.
Location of Supporting Documentation
(emplacement de la documentation): The institution and office
holding the supporting documents related to the formal recognition
of the historic place.
Location (emplacement): Information that
assists in locating a historic place on a street map or a map of
Longhouse (longue maison): A long structure
built of bent poles forming a tunnel shape, capable of housing
Maintenance (entretien): Routine, cyclical,
non-destructive actions necessary to slow the deterioration of an
historic place. It entails periodic inspection; routine, cyclical,
non-destructive cleaning; minor repair and refinishing operations;
replacement of damaged or deteriorated materials that are
impractical to save.
Management Plan (plan de gestion): A document
that constitutes the local expression of the general policies of
the department and approved by the Minister following extensive
public participation. This plan directs the long-term development
and operation of a park, national historic site or canal. It
constitutes a framework within which subsequent management,
implementation and detailed planning will take place.
Mandatory Documentation (documentation
obligatoire): Mandatory documentation must be provided in order for
a place to be officially listed on the Canadian Register of
Mansard roof (toit en mansarde): A roof that
has a double slope, with the lower part steeper than the upper one;
also called a gambrel roof, especially for barns.
Marquee (marquise): A fixed horizontal
structure that projects from a wall - usually over a theatre's
entrance - to provide shelter from the weather. See also awning and
Masonry (maçonnerie): Stone, brick, concrete,
tile, or any other earthen products used in construction.
Minimal intervention (intervention minimale):
The approach that allows functional goals to be met with the least
Mock-up (maquette): A full-sized model of a
structure or intervention used for demonstration, study or
Monitoring (surveillance): The systematic and
regular inspection or measurement of the condition of the materials
and elements of an historic place to determine their behavior,
performance, and rate of deterioration over time.
Mothballing (mise sous cocon): To temporarily
close up a building or other structure to protect it from the
weather as well as to secure it from vandalism.
Moulding (moulure): A shaped decorative
element, usually a horizontal band, that projects slightly from the
surface of a wall.
Mullion (meneau): A thin upright member within
a window or between adjacent windows.
Name of Historic Place (nom du lieu
historique): A single, common name in current usage that serves as
an identifier for a historic place.
National Historic Site (lieu historique
national): Any place declared to be of national historic interest
or significance by the Minister responsible for Parks Canada.
National Marine Conservation Areas (aire marine
nationale de conservation): A designated marine area set aside in
accordance with the National Marine Conservation Area Policy.
National Park (parc national): A natural area
of land or sea, designated to (a) protect the ecological integrity
of one or more ecosystems for present and future generations; (b)
exclude exploitation or occupation inimical to the purposes of
designation of the area; and (c) provide a foundation for
spiritual, scientific, educational, recreational and visitor
opportunities, all of which must be environmentally and culturally
compatible. (Source: "Guidelines for Protected Areas Management
Categories" - IUCN - The World Conservation Union ). In
Canada, the word also means a national park as described in
Schedule 1 of the National Parks Act. It is an area which has been
identified as a natural area of Canadian significance, which has
been acquired by Canada and designated by Parliament as a national
park, and over which Parks Canada has been given administration and
control under the authority of the National Parks Act. It is
managed for the benefit, education and enjoyment of Canadians so as
to leave it unimpaired for future generations.
Natural Areas of Canadian Significance (NACS)
(aire naturelle représentative d'intérêt canadien): A natural area
which provides outstanding representation of the geology,
physiography, vegetation and wildlife that is characteristic of its
larger natural region. A potential national park is selected from
among NACS within a natural region not represented in the system of
Niche (niche): A concave recess in a wall,
often intended to contain sculpture. (A guide to Can. Architectural
Non-destructive testing (essai non-destructif):
Testing that does not result in the permanent deformation or damage
of the element being tested.
Oculus (oculus): A round or oval opening in a
wall or at the apex of a dome; sometimes louvred or glazed;
also called a roundel or bull's eye window.(A guide to Can.
Ogee (doucine): An arch created from a double
curve, convex above and concave below.
Optional Documentation (documentation
facultative): Optional documentation is not required but may be
included wherever appropriate, in order to increase the usefulness
and the functionality of the Canadian Register of Historic
Order (ordre): An arrangement of columns and
entablature in classical architecture. Specific styles of columns
and detailing are divided into five main categories: Doric, Ionic,
Corinthian (the Greek orders), Tuscan, and Composite (the Roman
Oriel Window (fenêtre en encorbellement ou
oriel): A bay window projecting from an upper storey.
Owner Notification and Response (avis au
propriétaire et réponse du propriétaire): Indicates whether an
individual owner has given his/her consent to collect, use and
disclose personal information for the purposes of Canadian
Palladian window (fenêtre palladienne): A
three-part window consisting of a tall centre window, usually
round-headed, flanked by two shorter, narrower windows.
Parapet (parapet): In a building, a portion of
a wall that projects above a roof; in a fortification, a low wall
or mound, usually of stone or earth, created to protect
Past performance (rendement antérieur): The
demonstration of a structure's ability to satisfactorily resist
loads based on its history. Buildings and structures built in
accordance with good building practices, prior to the development
of building codes, may be considered to have proven their capacity
to resist loads based on the fact that they have already been
subjected to, and successfully resisted, these loads in the
Patching (ragréage): The action of making
defects disappear from a wood, stone or concrete surface.
Pavilion (pavilion): A subsection of a larger
building, usually projecting, sometimes distinguished by a
different roof shape or surface treatment, usually at the centre or
ends of a building.
Pediment (fronton): The triangular end of a
gable, or a triangular ornamental element resembling it, defined by
a moulding (or series of mouldings) along its three edges.
Pergola (pergola): An arbor or a passageway of
columns supporting a roof of trelliswork on which climbing plants
are trained to grow.
Petroglyph (pétroglyphe): A figure inscribed
onto a rock surface by grinding, chiping or incising.
Pictograph (pictogramme): Symbolic pictorial
representation of a concept, object, activity, place or event.
Piecing in (rattachage): To repair or add to by
inserting a piece. (This definition is more concise)
Pier (pilier): A vertical stone or brick
support, usually square or rectangular.
Pilaster (pilastre): A pillar or pier attached
to a wall, usually in one of the classical orders.
Plinth (socle): The base of a column, pilaster,
door frame, or wall resembling a platform.
Portico (portique): A covered porch or walkway
supported by columns.
Post (Poteau): A generic word for any upright
support: a pier is a post of square or rectangular section, usually
of masonry; a column is a post of circular section; a steel or iron
member used vertically is also called a column; a pilaster is a
shallow rectangular upright support set into a wall and used mainly
Preservation (préservation): The action or
process of protecting, maintaining and/or stabilizing the existing
materials, form and integrity of a historic place, or of an
individual component, while protecting its heritage value.
Protected Heritage Areas (aire patrimoniale
protégée): Protected heritage areas are: a) areas that have been
accorded "protected" status, because of their natural or cultural
qualities, through acquisition or application of land-use
controls; b) areas that have been recognized as having
natural or cultural heritage value and which require some form of
protected status in order to ensure their long-term
protection. In the former case, management practices flow
from the protected status; in the latter, management focuses on the
need to devise an appropriate form of protection status. "Protected
Heritage Areas" include, but are not limited to, all the program
elements and activities set out in this Policy.
Identifies the province or territory where a historic place is
Quoin (pierre d'angle): A protruding stone or
brick that accentuates an exterior corner. (A guide to Can.
Rafter (chevron): In timber roof construction,
a principal sloping component that runs from the top of the wall to
Rampart (rempart): A wide bank of earth,
usually with a parapet on top, built around a fort to help defend
Rehabilitation (réhabilitation): The action or
process of making possible a continuing or compatible contemporary
use for a historic place, or of an individual component, through
repair, alterations and/or additions, while protecting its heritage
Reinforced concrete (béton armé): Concrete
strengthened by the addition of a least 0.2 per cent structural
Related Listing (inscription associée): Some
historic places are recognized by more than one authority and/or
more than one jurisdiction. Related listing(s) identifies the other
listing or listings within the Canadian Register of Historic Places
associated with a historic place.
Repointing (rejointoiement): To repair masonry
joints with mortar.
Restoration (restauration): The action or
process of accurately revealing, recovering or representing the
state of a historic place, or of an individual component, as it
appeared at a particular period in its history, while protecting
its heritage value.
Ridge (faîte): The uppermost part of a roof,
usually horizontal; or the structural component at the top of a
Rock Art (Rupestral Art) (art rupestre): A
general term for figures or designs painted or engraved on rock or
formed through the placement of boulders. Rock art thus includes
petroforms, petroglyphs, petrographs and pictographs.
Rose window (rose): A large circular window
with radiating tracery or glazing bars; often filled with stained
glass. (A guide to Can. Architectural Styles)
Rosette (rosace): A round motif applied to a
wall, or as a centre ceiling decoration, usually decorated with
floral or leaf motifs.
Rusticated stone (pierre rustiquée): Cut stone
having a strongly emphasized recessed edges or joints creating
Sash (châssis): In a window, the wood or metal
frame that holds the glass.
Service Plan (plan de services): A document
that translates the conceptual direction of the Management Plan
into a detailed offer of service to the public, with an
Shed roof (toit en appentis): A roof with only
one slope; also used to describe the roof of a dormer window if it
has only one slope.
Shiplap (planche à feuillure): A siding or
cladding of horizontally laid boards with notched edges that make
an overlapping joint, applied to the outside of a wood-framed
building, or a stone wall, to make it weatherproof; the face of
each board is parallel to the plane of the wall (also called drop
Sidelight (fenêtre latérale): A window beside a
door, forming part of the door unit often in flanking pairs.
Siding (bardage): A facing material, or
cladding, applied to the outside of a wood-framed building to make
it weatherproof, sometimes called weatherboarding: shiplap (or drop
siding) consists of horizontally laid boards with notched edges
that make an overlapping joint; the face of each board is parallel
to the plane of the wall; clapboard (or bevelled siding) consists
of bevelled boards laid horizontally and overlapping at the top and
bottom; the face of each board is oblique to the wall;
board-and-batten siding is composed of vertically applied boards
whose joints are covered by narrow strips (battens); shingles may
also be used as a siding, as may composite materials such as
asphalt, asbestos or synthetic materials, often imitating brick or
shingle; metal and vinyl siding are also used.
Significant Date (date(s) importante(s)): Date
other than the construction date, associated with the heritage
value of the historic place.
Sill (seuil): The horizontal piece at the
bottom of a window frame; the bottom of the door frame resting on
Single or double hung window (sash window)
(Fenêtre à guillotine (à guillotine simple): A sash which moves
vertically along a tongue or track)
Soffit (soffite): The underside of an eave,
beam, or other component.
Spalled (effrité): Breaking up of a masonry
surface into chips or fragments.
Spandrel (tympan): the portion of a wall
between the top of one window and the window sill above it; or the
roughly triangular surface between two adjacent arches.
Splicing (épissage): The action of joining an existing element
with a new element in order to compensate for the weakness of a
damaged edge. The splicing of structural members for reinforcement
is a typical example.
Standards and Guidelines for the conservation of
Historic Places in Canada (Normes et lignes directrices
pour la conservation des lieux patrimoniaux du Canada): The
Standards and Guidelines for the Conservation of Historic Places in
Canada is the first-ever pan-Canadian benchmark for heritage
conservation practice in this country. It offers results-oriented
guidance for sound decision making when a planning for, intervening
in and using historic places. (Termium)
Standards (normes): Norms for the respectful
conservation of historic places.
Statement of Significance (SOS) (énoncé
d'importance): A statement that identifies the description,
heritage value, and character-defining elements of an historic
place. A Statement of Significance is required in order for an
historic place to be listed on the Canadian Register of Historic
Status (état): Indicates the current status of
a historic place on the Canadian Register of Historic Places, i.e.:
Listed, or de-listed.
Stratigraphy (stratigraphie): The composition
and arrangement of geographic strata or layers of earth in a
Steel Frame Construction (construction à
ossature en acier): A building system in which steel members such
as girders and beams support the weight of the building.
Street and Street Number (rue et numéro): The
street and street number of the historic place.
Stressors (facteurs de stress): Elements or
events that could potentially disturb or put pressure on the
archaeological site's character-defining elements and/or heritage
Stringcourse (bandeau ou assise de ceinture): A
protruding band that runs horizontally along the façade of a
building, usually between storeys.
Structure (structure): A human-made
construction that is not a building.
Stud (poteau): In timber construction, one of a
series of vertical supports.
Sustainability (durabilité): A group of
objectives (economic, social and environmental) that must be
coordinated and addressed to ensure the long term viability of
communities and the planet.
Sustainable tourism (tourisme durable): A form
of tourism which aims at using resources in such a way that
economic, social and aesthetic needs are fulfilled while cultural
integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and
life support systems are maintained.
Terra cotta (terre cuite): Fired clay commonly
shaped in a mould and frequently glazed after firing.
Terrace (terrasse): A flat level of land, often
a component of a series of step-like flat levels on a slope.
Terrazzo (terrazzo): Flooring manufactured from
marble chips irregularly set in cement and highly polished. (A
guide to Can. Architectural Styles)
Theme - Category (thème- catégorie): Identifies
broad thematic category related to the heritage value of the
Theme - Type (thème- type): Identifies the
specific thematic type that best applies to a historic place.
Thermal bridge (pont thermique): An element
made of a material that is a poor heat insulator and that is placed
in an assembly (between other materials, or between interior and
Tourelle (tourelle): a turret or small round
tower projecting from the upper corner of a wall. (Not in French
Trefoil (trilobe): A three-lobed cloverleaf
pattern. (A guide to Can. Architectural Styles)
Truss (ferme): A structural framework, made of
either timber or metal, that is composed of individual members
fastened together in a triangular arrangement.
Vault (voûte): A covering over an arched
Vernacular (vernaculaire): Indigenous, made
locally by inhabitants; made using local materials and traditional
methods of construction and ornament; specific to a region or
Voussoirs (voussoirs): Wedge-shaped stones or
bricks set in an arch, often over a window or doorway.
Widow's walk (promenade des veuves ou
plate-forme d'observation): A railed platform atop a roof,
typically on a coastal house, that was used to look out for
Windbreak (brise-vent): A row of tress or
bushes planted to provide protection from the wind and, often, to
prevent soil erosion.
World Heritage Site (site du patrimoine
mondial): A cultural or natural site that is designated as having
outstanding universal value by the World Heritage Committee,
according to its criteria. The committee was established to oversee
implementation of UNESCO's l972 World Heritage Convention.